Henry VII, King of England

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Henry VII Tudor, King of England

Also Known As: "Harri Tudur", "King of England", "Harry (King Henry VII of England)"
Birthplace: Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Death: April 21, 1509 (52)
Richmond Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England (tuberculosis)
Place of Burial: Henry VII's Chapel, Westminster Abbey, London, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Margaret Beaufort
Husband of Elizabeth of York
Partner of NN NN, Unknown Breton Woman
Father of Sir Roland Velville, of Beaumaris; Arthur, Prince of Wales; Henry VIII, King of England; Elizabeth Margaret Tudor; Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset and 3 others

Occupation: King of England, Henry VII of England, Earl of Richmond
House: Tudor (Founder)
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Henry VII, King of England

Please see Darrell Wolcott: The Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty; http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id217.html (Steven Ferry, November 25, 2022.)

Please see Darrell Wolcott: King Llewelyn ap Iorwerth and Ednyfed Fychan; http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id308.html (Steven Ferry, November 25, 2022.)

"Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

Henry won the throne when his forces defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. Henry cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses. He founded the Tudor dynasty and, after a reign of nearly 24 years, was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.

Although Henry can be credited with the restoration of political stability in England, and a number of commendable administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives, the latter part of his reign was characterised by a financial rapacity which stretched the bounds of legality. The capriciousness and lack of due process which indebted many in England were soon ended upon Henry VII's death after a commission revealed widespread abuses. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" in large part underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years."


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Citations / Sources:

[S1] S&N Genealogy Supplies, S&N Peerage CD., CD-ROM (Chilmark, Salisbury, U.K.: S&N Genealogy Supplies, no date (c. 1999)). Hereinafter cited as S&N Peerage CD.

[S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, editor, DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th year (London, U.K.: Odhams Press, 1949), page 20 . Hereinafter cited as DeBretts Peerage, 1949.

[S5] #552 Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten. Neue Folge (1978), Schwennicke, Detlev, (Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, c1978-1995 (v. 1-16) -- Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, c1998- Medieval Families bibliography #552.), FHL book Q 940 D5es new series., vol. 2 p. 94.

[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 157, volume II, page 45, volume III, page 175. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.

[S7] #44 Histoire de la maison royale de France anciens barons du royaume: et des grands officiers de la couronne (1726, reprint 1967-1968), Saint-Marie, Anselme de, (3rd edition. 9 volumes. 1726. Reprint Paris: Editions du Palais Royal, 1967-1968), FHL book 944 D5a; FHL microfilms 532,231-532,239., vol. 1 p. 129.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 149-151. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

[S14] #236 Encyclopédie généalogique des maisons souveraines du monde (1959-1966), Sirjean, Gaston, (Paris: Gaston Sirjean, 1959-1966), FHL book 944 D5se., vol. 1 pt. 1 p. 88.

[S16] #894 Cahiers de Saint-Louis (1976), Louis IX, Roi de France, (Angers: J. Saillot, 1976), FHL book 944 D22ds., vol. 2 p. 108, vol. 3 p. 133.

[S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), reference "Henry VII, 1457-1509". Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

[S20] Magna Carta Ancestry: A study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Richardson, Douglas, (Kimball G. Everingham, editor. 2nd edition, 2011), vol. 4 p. 225.

[S22] #374 The Lineage and Ancestry of H. R. H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (1977), Paget, Gerald, (2 volumes. Baltimore: Geneal. Pub., 1977), FHL book Q 942 D22pg., vol. 1 p. 31.

[S23] #849 Burke's Guide to the Royal Family (1973), (London: Burke's Peerage, c1973), FHl book 942 D22bgr., p. 200.

[S25] #798 The Wallop Family and Their Ancestry, Watney, Vernon James, (4 volumes. Oxford: John Johnson, 1928), FHL book Q 929.242 W159w; FHL microfilm 1696491 it., vol. 3 p. 777.

[S34] #271 Lives of the Queens of England from the Norman Conquest (1843), (New edition. 6 volumes. New York: John W. Lovell [1843]), FHL book 942 D3sa; FHL microfilms 845,145-845,147., vol. 1 p. 657-702.

[S35] #244 The History and Antiquities of the County of Northampton (1822-1841), Baker, George, (2 volumes. London: J. B. Nichols and Son, 1822-1841), FHL book Q 942.55 H2bal; FHL microfilm 962,237 ite., vol. 1 p. 56.

[S37] #93 [Book version] The Dictionary of National Biography: from the Earliest Times to 1900 (1885-1900, reprint 1993), Stephen, Leslie, (22 volumes. 1885-1900. Reprint, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1993), FHL book 920.042 D561n., vol. 26 p. 69-94.

[S39] Medieval, royalty, nobility family group sheets (filmed 1996), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Family History Department. Medieval Family History Unit, (Manuscript. Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1996), FHL film 1553977-1553985..

[S47] #688 Collectanea topographica et genealogica (1834-1843), (8 volumes. London: J.B. Nichols, 1834-1843), FHL book 942 B2ct; FHL microfilms 496,953 item 3 a., vol. 1 p. 295, 297, 308.

[S54] #21 The complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant, Cokayne, George Edward, (Gloucester [England] : Alan Sutton Pub. Ltd., 1987), 942 D22cok., vol. 3 p. 441, 443.

[S66] #242 [1831 edition] A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerages of England, Ireland, and Scotland, Extinct, Dormant, and in Abeyance (1831), Burke, John, (London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1831), FHL book 942 D22bg 1831; FHL microfilm 845,453 ite., p. 161.

[S81] #125 The Royal Daughters of England and Their Representatives (1910-1911), Lane, Henry Murray, (2 voulmes. London: Constable and Co., 1910-1911), FHL microfilm 88,003., vol. 1 p. 309-310 319- 331 table.

[S101] #11833 The Ancestry of Mary Isaac, C.1549-1613: Wife of Thomas Appleton of Little Waldingfield, Co. Suffolk . . . (1955), Davis, Walter Goodwin, (Portland, Maine: Anthoesen Press, 1955), FHL book 929.242 Is1d; FHL microfilm 990,484 item ., p. 26.

[S107] #150 [1827-1878] A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage, Together with Memoirs of the Privy Councillors and Knights (1827-1878), Burke, Sir John Bernard, (London: Henry Colburn, 1827-1878), FHL book 942 D22bup., 1949 p. 1428-1429.

[S338] Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families (2004), Richardson, Douglas, edited by Kamball G. Everingham, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2004), FHL book 942 D5rd., p. xxix.

[S631] An Encyclopedia of World History; Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged (1972), Langer, William L., (5th edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972), p. 292.

[S658] The Royal Stewarts, Henderson, T. F., (William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1914), 929.241 St49h., Stewart Pedigree.

[S673] #1079 A History of Monmouthshire from the Coming of the Normans into Wales down to the Present Time (1904-1993), Bradney, Sir Joseph Alfred, (Publications of the South Wales Record Society, number 8. Five volumes in 13. London: Mitchell, Hughes and Clarke, 1904-1993), FHL book 942.43 H2b., vol. 2 p. 26; vol. 3 p. 8.

[S676] Mary Tudor, the White Queen (1970), Richardson, Walter Cecil, (Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press [1970]), HBLL book DC 108. R5 1970b., p. 3, 33, 80, 96, 199, 210, 21 213, 264.

[S677] The Earlier Tudors, 1485-1558 (1952), Mackie, John Duncan, (The Oxford history of England, v. 7. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1952), FHL book 942 H2oh v. 7., p. 48, 65.

[S678] #1039 Pedigrees of Anglessey and Carnarvonshire Families: with Their Collateral Branches in Denbighshire, Merionethshire (1914), Griffith, John Edwards, (Horncastle, England: W.K. Morton, 1914), FHL book Folio 942.9 D2gr; FHL microfilm 468,334., p. 106, 223, 270.

[S1800] #771 The History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fodog and the Ancient Lords of Arwystli, Cedewen and Meirionydd (1881-1887), Lloyd, Jacob Youde William, (6 volumes. London: T. Richards, 1881-1887), FHL book 942.9 D2L; FHL microfilms 990,213-990,214., vol. 2 p. 135; vol. 4 p. 283*.

[S1850] Medieval Lands: A Prosopography of Medieval European Noble and Royal Families, Charles Cawley, (http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/), England, Kings 1066-1603 [accessed 28 Jun 2006].

[S1886] #89 A Genealogical History of the Kings of England, and Monarchs of Great Britain, & C. From the Conquest, Anno 1066 to the Year, 1677, Sandford, Francis Esq., (London: Thomas Newcomb, 1677), FHL microfilm 599,670 item 3., p. 312.

[S1924] #189 The Scots Peerage: Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, Containing an Historical and Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that Kingdom, with Armorial Illustrations (1904-1914), Paul , Sir James Balfour, (9 volumes. Edinburgh: D. Douglas, 1904-1914), FHL book 941 D22p; FHL microfilms104,157-104,161., vol. 1 p. 21.

[S2318] #1210 The Family of Griffith of Garn and Plasnewydd in the County of Denbigh, as Registered in the College of Arms from the Beginning of the XIth Century (1934), Glenn, Thomas Allen, (London: Harrison, 1934), FHL book 929.2429 G875g; FHL microfilm 994,040 ite., p. 223.

[S2411] #11915 British Genealogy (filmed 1950), Evans, Alcwyn Caryni, (Books A to H. National Library of Wales MSS 12359-12360D. Manuscript filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), FHL microfilms 104,355 and 104,390 item 2., book 6 p. F4*, F5; book 8 p. H45*.

[S2434] #2105 Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches Between the Years 1586 and 1613 by Lewys Dwnn (1846), Dwnn, Lewys; transcribed and edited with notes by Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick, (2 volumes. Llandovery: William Rees, 1846), FHL book 942.9 D23d; FHL microfilm 176,668., vol. 2 p. 88, 108.

[S2436] #4569 Welsh Genealogies AD 1400-1500 (1983), Bartrum, Peter C. (Peter Clement), (18 volumes, with supplements containing additions and corrections. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 1983), FHL book 942.9 D2bw., vol. 8 p. 1284.

Henry VII of England
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Henry VII King Henry VII.jpg Henry holding a rose and wearing the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, by unknown artist, 1505 King of England (more...) Reign 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509 Coronation 30 October 1485 Predecessor Richard III Successor Henry VIII Born 28 January 1457 Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales Died 21 April 1509 (aged 52) Richmond Palace, Surrey, England Burial 11 May 1509 Westminster Abbey, London Spouse Elizabeth of York (m. 1486; d. 1503) Issue more... Arthur, Prince of Wales Margaret, Queen of Scots Henry VIII, King of England Mary, Queen of France House Tudor Father Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond Mother Lady Margaret Beaufort Religion Roman Catholic Signature Henry VII's signature English Royalty House of Tudor Coat of Arms of Henry VII of England (1485-1509).svg Royal Coat of Arms Henry VII Arthur, Prince of Wales Margaret, Queen of Scots Henry VIII Mary, Queen of France v t e Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England from seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, and the first monarch of the House of Tudor. He ruled the Principality of Wales[1] until 29 November 1489 and was Lord of Ireland.

Henry won the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war, and after a reign of nearly 24 years, he was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.

Henry can also be credited with a number of administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives He paid very close attention to detail. Instead of spending lavishly he concentrated on raising new revenues. His new taxes were unpopular and when Henry VIII succeeded him he executed his two most hated tax collectors.

His supportive stance of the islands' wool industry and stand off with the Low Countries had long lasting benefits to all the British Isles economy. However, the capriciousness and lack of due process that indebted many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VII's death, after a commission revealed widespread abuses.[2] According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years.[3]

Contents [hide] 1 Ancestry and early life 2 Rise to the throne 3 Reign 3.1 Economics 3.2 Foreign policy 3.3 Trade agreements 3.4 Law enforcement and Justices of Peace 3.5 Later years and death 4 Appearance and character 5 Legacy and memory 6 Henry's titles 7 Arms 8 Issue 9 Ancestry 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links Ancestry and early life Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457 to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond. His father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, died three months before his birth.[4]

Henry's paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, originally from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V. He rose to become one of the "Squires to the Body to the King" after military service at the Battle of Agincourt.[5] Owen is said to have secretly married the widow of Henry V, Catherine of Valois. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII. Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, and "formally declared legitimate by Parliament".[6]

Henry's main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort. Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III, and his third wife Katherine Swynford. Katherine was Gaunt's mistress for about 25 years; when they married in 1396, they already had four children, including Henry's great-grandfather John Beaufort. Thus Henry's claim was somewhat tenuous: it was from a woman, and by illegitimate descent. In theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim (as far as "legitimacy" is concerned) as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile.

Young Henry VII, by a French artist (Musée Calvet, Avignon) Gaunt's nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunt's children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397. In 1407, Henry IV, who was Gaunt's son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings, but also declaring them ineligible for the throne.[7] Henry IV's action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were previously legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henry's claim.

Nonetheless, by 1483 Henry was the senior male Lancastrian claimant remaining, after the deaths in battle or by murder or execution of Henry VI, his son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, and the other Beaufort line of descent through Lady Margaret's uncle, the 2nd Duke of Somerset.

Henry also made some political capital out of his Welsh ancestry, for example in attracting military support and safeguarding his army's passage through Wales on its way to the Battle of Bosworth.[8][9] He came from an old, established Anglesey family that claimed descent from Cadwaladr (in legend, the last ancient British king),[10] and on occasion Henry displayed the red dragon of Cadwaladr.[8] He took it, as well as the standard of St George, on his procession through London after the victory at Bosworth.[11] A contemporary writer and Henry's biographer, Bernard André, also made much of Henry's Welsh descent.[10]

In reality, however, his hereditary connections to Welsh aristocracy were not strong. He was descended by the paternal line, through several generations, from Ednyfed Fychan, the seneschal (steward) of Gwynedd and through this seneschal's wife from Rhys ap Tewdwr, the King of Deheubarth in South Wales.[12][13][14] His more immediate ancestor, Tudur ap Goronwy, had aristocratic land rights, but his sons, who were first cousins to Owain Glyndŵr, sided with Owain in his revolt. One son was executed and the family land was forfeited. Another son, Henry's great-grandfather, became a butler to the Bishop of Bangor.[11] Owen Tudor, the son of the butler, like the children of other rebels, was provided for by Henry V, a circumstance that precipitated his access to Queen Catherine of Valois.[15]

Pembroke Castle Notwithstanding this lineage, to the bards of Wales, Henry was a candidate for Y Mab Darogan – "The Son of Prophecy" who would free the Welsh from oppression.

In 1456, Henry's father Edmund Tudor was captured while fighting for Henry VI in South Wales against the Yorkists. He died in Carmarthen Castle, three months before Henry was born. Henry's uncle Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke and Edmund's younger brother, undertook to protect the young widow, who was 13 years old when she gave birth to Henry.[16] When Edward IV became King in 1461, Jasper Tudor went into exile abroad. Pembroke Castle, and later the Earldom of Pembroke, were granted to the Yorkist William Herbert, who also assumed the guardianship of Margaret Beaufort and the young Henry.[17]

Henry lived in the Herbert household until 1469, when Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (the "Kingmaker"), went over to the Lancastrians. Herbert was captured fighting for the Yorkists and executed by Warwick.[18] When Warwick restored Henry VI in 1470, Jasper Tudor returned from exile and brought Henry to court.[18] When the Yorkist Edward IV regained the throne in 1471, Henry fled with other Lancastrians to Brittany, where he spent most of the next 14 years under the protection of Francis II, Duke of Brittany. In November 1476, Henry's protector fell ill and his principal advisers were more amenable to negotiating with the English king. Henry was handed over and escorted to the Breton port of Saint-Malo. While there, he feigned stomach cramps and in the confusion fled into a monastery. As at Tewkesbury Abbey after 1471 battle, Edward IV prepared to order his extraction and probable execution. The townspeople took exception to his behaviour, however, and Francis recovered from his illness. Thus a small band of scouts rescued Henry.

Rise to the throne By 1483, Henry's mother was actively promoting him as an alternative to Richard III, despite her being married to a Yorkist, Lord Stanley. At Rennes Cathedral on Christmas Day 1483, Henry pledged to marry the eldest daughter of Edward IV, Elizabeth of York, who was also Edward's heir since the presumed death of her brothers, the Princes in the Tower (King Edward V and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York).[19] Henry then received the homage of his supporters.

With money and supplies borrowed from his host, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, Henry tried to land in England, but his conspiracy unravelled, resulting in the execution of his primary co-conspirator, the Duke of Buckingham.[20] Now supported by Francis II's prime-minister, Pierre Landais, Richard III attempted to extradite Henry from Brittany, but Henry escaped to France.[21] He was welcomed by the French, who readily supplied him with troops and equipment for a second invasion.

Henry gained the support of the Woodvilles, in-laws of the late Edward IV, and sailed with a small French and Scottish force, landing in Mill Bay, Pembrokeshire, close to his birthplace. He marched towards England accompanied by his uncle Jasper and the Earl of Oxford. Wales was traditionally a Lancastrian stronghold, and Henry owed the support he gathered to his Welsh birth and ancestry, being directly descended, through his father, from Rhys ap Gruffydd.[22] He amassed an army of around 5,000 soldiers.[23][24]

Henry was aware that his best chance to seize the throne was to engage Richard quickly and defeat him immediately, as Richard had reinforcements in Nottingham and Leicester. Richard only needed to avoid being killed to keep his throne. Though outnumbered, Henry's Lancastrian forces decisively defeated Richard's Yorkist army at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. Several of Richard's key allies, such as the Earl of Northumberland and William and Thomas Stanley, crucially switched sides or left the battlefield. Richard III's death at Bosworth Field effectively ended the Wars of the Roses, although it was not the last battle Henry had to fight.


The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York The first concern for Henry was to secure his hold on the throne. He declared himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before Bosworth Field.[25] Thus anyone who had fought for Richard against him would be guilty of treason, and Henry could legally confiscate his lands and property of Richard III while restoring his own. However, he spared Richard's nephew and designated heir, the Earl of Lincoln, and he made Margaret Plantagenet, a Yorkist heiress, Countess of Salisbury sui juris. He took great care not to address the baronage, or summon Parliament, until after his coronation, which took place in Westminster Abbey on 30 October 1485.[26] Almost immediately afterwards, he issued an edict that any gentleman who swore fealty to him would, notwithstanding any previous attainder, be secure in his property and person.

Henry then honoured his pledge of December 1483 to marry Elizabeth of York.[20][27] They were third cousins, as both were great-great-grandchildren of John of Gaunt.[28] The marriage took place on 18 January 1486 at Westminster. The marriage unified the warring houses and gave his children a strong claim to the throne. The unification of the houses of York and Lancaster by this marriage is symbolised by the heraldic emblem of the Tudor rose, a combination of the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster. It also ended future discussion as to whether the descendants of the fourth son of Edward III, Edmund, Duke of York, through marriage to Philippa, heiress of the second son, Lionel, Duke of Clarence, had a superior or inferior claim to those of the third son John of Gaunt, who had held the throne for three generations. In addition, Henry had Parliament repeal Titulus Regius, the statute that declared Edward IV's marriage invalid and his children illegitimate, thus legitimising his wife. Amateur historians Bertram Fields and Sir Clements Markham have claimed that he may have been involved in the murder of the Princes in the Tower, as the repeal of Titulus Regius gave the Princes a stronger claim to the throne than his own. Alison Weir, however, points out that the Rennes ceremony, two years earlier, was possible only if Henry and his supporters were certain that the Princes were already dead.[29]

Perfected and fluted armour of Henry VII Henry secured his crown principally by dividing and undermining the power of the nobility, especially through the aggressive use of bonds and recognisances to secure loyalty. He also enacted laws against livery and maintenance, the great lords' practice of having large numbers of "retainers" who wore their lord's badge or uniform and formed a potential private army.

While he was still in Leicester, after the battle of Bosworth Field, Henry was already taking precautions to prevent any rebellions against his reign. Before leaving Leicester to go to London, Henry dispatched Robert Willoughby to Sheriff Hutton in Yorkshire, to have the ten-year-old Edward, Earl of Warwick, arrested and taken to the Tower of London.[30] Edward was the son of George, Duke of Clarence, and as such he presented a threat as a potential rival to the new King Henry VII for the throne of England. However, Henry was threatened by several active rebellions over the next few years. The first was the Rebellion of the Stafford brothers and Viscount Lovell of 1486, which collapsed without fighting.[31]

In 1487, Yorkists led by Lincoln rebelled in support of Lambert Simnel, a boy who was claimed to be the Earl of Warwick,[32] son of Edward IV's brother Clarence (who had last been seen as a prisoner in the Tower). The rebellion began in Ireland, where the traditionally Yorkist nobility, headed by the powerful Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, proclaimed Simnel King and provided troops for his invasion of England. The rebellion was defeated and Lincoln killed at the Battle of Stoke. Henry showed remarkable clemency to the surviving rebels: he pardoned Kildare and the other Irish nobles, and he made the boy, Simnel, a servant in the royal kitchen.[33]

In 1490, a young Fleming, Perkin Warbeck, appeared and claimed to be Richard, the younger of the "Princes in the Tower". Warbeck won the support of Edward IV's sister Margaret of Burgundy. He led attempted invasions of Ireland in 1491 and England in 1495, and persuaded James IV of Scotland to invade England in 1496. In 1497 Warbeck landed in Cornwall with a few thousand troops, but was soon captured and executed.[34]

In 1499, Henry had the Earl of Warwick executed. However, he spared Warwick's elder sister Margaret. She survived until 1541, when she was executed by Henry VIII.

Henry married Elizabeth of York with the hope of uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian sides of the Plantagenet dynastic disputes, and he was largely successful. However, such a level of paranoia persisted that anyone (John de la Pole, Earl of Richmond,[35] for example) with blood ties to the Plantagenets was suspected of coveting the throne.[36]


Groat of Henry VII For most of Henry VII's reign Edward Story was Bishop of Chichester. Story's register still exists and according to the 19th century historian W.R.W Stephens "affords some illustrations of the avaricious and parsimonious character of the king". It seems that the king was skillful at extracting money from his subjects on many pretexts including that of war with France or war with Scotland. The money so extracted added to the king's personal fortune rather than the stated purpose.[37]

Unlike his predecessors, Henry VII came to the throne without personal experience in estate management or financial administration.[38] Yet during his reign he became a fiscally prudent monarch who restored the fortunes of an effectively bankrupt exchequer. Henry VII introduced stability to the financial administration of England by keeping the same financial advisors throughout his reign. For instance, other than the first few months of the reign, Lord Dynham and Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey were the only two office holders in the position of Lord High Treasurer of England throughout his reign.[39]

Henry VII improved tax collection within the realm by introducing ruthlessly efficient mechanisms of taxation. He was supported in this effort by his chancellor, Archbishop John Morton, whose "Morton's Fork" was a catch-22 method of ensuring that nobles paid increased taxes. Morton's Fork may actually have been invented by another of Henry's supporters, Richard Foxe.[40] However, whether it is called "Morton's Fork" or "Fox's Fork", the result was the same: Those nobles who spent little must have saved much and, thus, they could afford the increased taxes; on the other hand, those nobles who spent much obviously had the means to pay the increased taxes.[40] Royal government was also reformed with the introduction of the King's Council that kept the nobility in check. Henry VIII executed Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley, his two most hated tax collectors, on trumped-up charges of treason.[41]

He established the Pound Avoirdupois as a standard of weight; it became part of the Imperial System[42] and today's International pound units.[42]

Foreign policy Henry VII's policy was both to maintain peace and to create economic prosperity. Up to a point, he succeeded. He was not a military man and had no interest in trying to regain French territories lost during the reigns of his predecessors; he was therefore ready to conclude a treaty with France at Etaples that brought money into the coffers of England, and ensured the French would not support pretenders to the English throne, such as Perkin Warbeck. However, this treaty came at a slight price, as Henry mounted a minor invasion of Brittany in November 1492. Henry decided to keep Brittany out of French hands, signed an alliance with Spain to that end, and sent 6,000 troops to France.[43] The confused, fractious nature of Breton politics undermined his efforts, which finally failed after three sizeable expeditions, at a cost of £24,000. However, as France was becoming more concerned with the Italian Wars, the French were happy to agree to the Treaty of Etaples.[44]

Henry VII (centre), with his advisors Sir Richard Empson and Sir Edmund Dudley Henry had been under the financial and physical protection of the French throne or its vassals for most of his life, prior to his ascending the throne of England. To strengthen his position, however, he subsidised shipbuilding, so strengthening the navy (he commissioned Europe's first ever – and the world's oldest surviving – dry dock at Portsmouth in 1495) and improving trading opportunities.

Henry VII was one of the first European monarchs to recognise the importance of the newly united Spanish kingdom and concluded the Treaty of Medina del Campo, by which his son, Arthur Tudor, was married to Catherine of Aragon.[45] He also concluded the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Scotland (the first treaty between England and Scotland for almost two centuries), which betrothed his daughter Margaret to King James IV of Scotland. By means of this marriage, Henry VII hoped to break the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France. Though this was not achieved during his reign, the marriage eventually led to the union of the English and Scottish crowns under Margaret's great-grandson, James VI and I following the death of Henry's granddaughter Elizabeth I.

He also formed an alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1493–1519) and persuaded Pope Innocent VIII to issue a papal bull of excommunication against all pretenders to Henry's throne.

Trade agreements Henry VII was much enriched by trading alum, which was used in the wool and cloth trades for use as a chemical dye fixative when dyeing fabrics.[46] Since alum was mined in only one area in Europe (Tolfa, Italy), it was a scarce commodity and therefore especially valuable to its land holder, the pope. With the English economy heavily invested in wool production, Henry VII became involved in the alum trade in 1486. With the assistance of the Italian merchant-banker, Lodovico della Fava and the Italian banker, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Henry VII became deeply involved in the trade by licensing ships, obtaining alum from the Ottoman Empire, and selling it to the Low Countries and in England.[47] This trade made an expensive commodity cheaper, which raised opposition from Pope Julius II since the Tolfa mine was a part of papal territory and had given the Pope monopoly control over alum.

Henry's most successful diplomatic achievement as regards the economy was the Magnus Intercursus ("great agreement") of 1496. In 1494, Henry embargoed trade (mainly in wool) with the Netherlands as retaliation for Margaret of Burgundy's support of Perkin Warbeck. The Merchant Adventurers, the company which enjoyed the monopoly of the Flemish wool trade, relocated from Antwerp to Calais. At the same time, Flemish merchants were ejected from England. The stand-off eventually paid off for Henry. Both parties realised they were mutually disadvantaged by the reduction in commerce. Its restoration by the Magnus Intercursus was very much to England's benefit in removing taxation for English merchants and significantly increasing England's wealth. In turn, Antwerp became an extremely important trade entrepot, through which, for example, goods from the Baltic, spices from the east and Italian silks were exchanged for English cloth.[48]

In 1506, Henry extorted the Treaty of Windsor from Philip the Handsome of Burgundy. Philip had been shipwrecked on the English coast, and while Henry's guest, was bullied into an agreement so favourable to England at the expense of the Netherlands that it was dubbed the Malus Intercursus ("evil agreement"). France, Burgundy, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and the Hanseatic League all rejected the treaty, which was never in force. Philip died shortly after the negotiations.[49]

Law enforcement and Justices of Peace Henry's principal problem was to restore royal authority in a realm recovering from the Wars of the Roses. There were too many powerful noblemen and, as a consequence of the system of so-called bastard feudalism, each had what amounted to private armies of indentured retainers (mercenaries masquerading as servants).

Late 16th-century copy of a portrait of Henry VII He was content to allow the nobles their regional influence if they were loyal to him. For instance, the Stanley family had control of Lancashire and Cheshire, upholding the peace on the condition that they stayed within the law. In other cases, he brought his over-powerful subjects to heel by decree. He passed laws against "livery" (the upper classes' flaunting of their adherents by giving them badges and emblems) and "maintenance" (the keeping of too many male "servants"). These laws were used shrewdly in levying fines upon those that he perceived as threats.

However, his principal weapon was the Court of Star Chamber. This revived an earlier practice of using a small (and trusted) group of the Privy Council as a personal or Prerogative Court, able to cut through the cumbersome legal system and act swiftly. Serious disputes involving the use of personal power, or threats to royal authority, were thus dealt with.[50]

Henry VII used Justices of the Peace on a large, nationwide scale. They were appointed for every shire and served for a year at a time. Their chief task was to see that the laws of the country were obeyed in their area. Their powers and numbers steadily increased during the time of the Tudors, never more so than under Henry's reign.[51] Despite this, Henry was keen to constrain their power and influence, applying the same principles to the Justices of the Peace as he did to the nobility: a similar system of bonds and recognisances to that which applied to both the gentry and the nobles who tried to exert their elevated influence over these local officials.

All Acts of Parliament were overseen by the Justices of the Peace. For example, Justices of the Peace could replace suspect jurors in accordance with the 1495 act preventing the corruption of juries. They were also in charge of various administrative duties, such as the checking of weights and measures.

By 1509, Justices of the Peace were key enforcers of law and order for Henry VII. They were unpaid, which, in comparison with modern standards, meant a lesser tax bill to pay for a police force. Local gentry saw the office as one of local influence and prestige and were therefore willing to serve. Overall, this was a successful area of policy for Henry, both in terms of efficiency and as a method of reducing the corruption endemic within the nobility of the Middle Ages.

Later years and death

Scene at deathbed of Henry VII at Richmond Palace, 1509. Drawn contemporaneously from witness accounts by the courtier Sir Thomas Wriothesley (d.1534), who wrote an account of the proceedings. BL Add.MS 45131,f.54 In 1502, Henry VII's first son and heir-apparent, Arthur, Prince of Wales, died suddenly at Ludlow Castle, very likely from a viral respiratory illness known, at the time, as the "English sweating sickness".[52] This made Henry, Duke of York (Henry VIII) heir-apparent to the throne. The King, normally a reserved man who rarely showed much emotion in public unless angry, surprised his courtiers by his intense grief and sobbing at his son's death, while his concern for the Queen is evidence that the marriage was a happy one, as is his reaction to the Queen's death the following year, when he shut himself away for several days, refusing to speak to anyone.[53]

Henry VII wanted to maintain the Spanish alliance. He therefore arranged a papal dispensation from Pope Julius II for Prince Henry to marry his brother's widow Catherine, a relationship that would have otherwise precluded marriage in the Roman Catholic Church. In 1503, Queen Elizabeth died in childbirth, so King Henry had the dispensation also permit him to marry Catherine himself. After obtaining the dispensation, Henry had second thoughts about the marriage of his son and Catherine. Catherine's mother Isabella I of Castile had died and Catherine's sister Joanna had succeeded her; Catherine was therefore daughter of only one reigning monarch and so less desirable as a spouse for Henry VII's heir-apparent. The marriage did not take place during his lifetime. Otherwise, at the time of his father's arranging of the marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the future Henry VIII was too young to contract the marriage according to Canon Law, and would be ineligible until age fourteen.[54]

Henry made half-hearted plans to remarry and beget more heirs, but these never came to anything. In 1505 he was sufficiently interested in a potential marriage to Joan, the recently widowed Queen of Naples, that he sent ambassadors to Naples to report on the 27-year-old's physical suitability.[55] The wedding never took place, and curiously the physical description Henry sent with his ambassadors describing what he desired in a new wife matched the description of Elizabeth. After 1503, records show the Tower of London was never again used as a royal residence by Henry Tudor, and all royal births under Henry VIII took place in palaces. Henry VII was shattered by the loss of Elizabeth, and her death broke his heart.[56][57] During his lifetime he was often jeered by the nobility for his re-centralizing of power in London, and later the 16th-century historian Francis Bacon was ruthlessly critical of the methods by which he enforced tax law, but equally true is the fact that Henry Tudor was hellbent on keeping detailed bookkeeping records of his personal finances, down to the last halfpenny;[58] these and one account book detailing the expenses of his queen survive in the British National Archives. Until the death of his wife Elizabeth, the evidence is clear from these accounting books that Henry Tudor was a more doting father and husband than was widely known. Many of the entries in his account books show a man who loosened his purse strings generously for his wife and children, and not just on necessities: in spring 1491 he spent a great amount of gold on his daughter Mary for a lute; the following year he spent money on a lion for Queen Elizabeth's menagerie.

Posthumous portrait bust by Pietro Torrigiano, supposedly made using Henry's death mask. With the death of Elizabeth, the possibility for such family indulgences greatly diminished.[59] Immediately after Elizabeth's death, Henry became very sick and nearly died himself, and only allowed Margaret Beaufort, his mother, near him: "privily departed to a solitary place, and would that no man should resort unto him."[60][61]

Henry VII died at Richmond Palace on 21 April 1509 of tuberculosis and was buried at Westminster Abbey, next to his wife, Elizabeth, in the chapel he commissioned.[62] He was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII (reign 1509–47). His mother survived him, dying two months later on 29 June 1509.

Appearance and character Henry is the first English king for whose appearance we have good contemporary visual records in realistic portraits that are relatively free of idealization. At twenty-seven, Henry was tall, slender, with small blue eyes, which were said to have a noticeable animation of expression, and noticeably bad teeth in a long, sallow face beneath very fair hair. Amiable and high-spirited, Henry Tudor was friendly if dignified in manner, while it was clear to everyone that he was extremely intelligent. His biographer, Professor Chrimes, credits him – even before he had become king – with possessing "a high degree of personal magnetism, ability to inspire confidence, and a growing reputation for shrewd decisiveness". On the debit side, he may have looked a little delicate as he suffered from poor health.[63][64]

Legacy and memory Historians have always compared Henry VII with his continental contemporaries, especially Louis XI of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon. By 1600 historians emphasised Henry's wisdom in drawing lessons in statecraft from other monarchs. By 1900 the "New Monarchy" interpretation stressed the common factors that in each country led to the revival of monarchical power. This approach raised puzzling questions about similarities and differences in the development of national states. In the late 20th century a model of European state formation was prominent in which Henry less resembles Louis and Ferdinand.[65]

Henry's titles

Coat of arms of King Henry VII As king, Henry was styled as His Grace. His full style as king was: Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland.

Arms Upon his succession as king, Henry became entitled to bear the arms of his kingdom. After his marriage, he used the red-and-white rose as his emblem – this continued to be his dynasty's emblem, known as the Tudor rose.

Issue Henry and Elizabeth's children are listed below.

Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, first husband of Catherine of Aragon.

Margaret Tudor, wife of James IV of Scotland and great grandmother of James I of England.

Henry VIII of England, Henry VII's successor.

Mary Tudor, Queen of France and subsequently wife of Charles Brandon. Name Birth Death Notes Arthur 19 September 1486 2 April 1502 Prince of Wales, heir apparent from birth to death Margaret Tudor 28 November 1489 18 October 1541 Queen of Scots as the wife of James IV and regent for James V of Scotland. Grandmother of both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, the parents of James I of England. Henry VIII 28 June 1491 28 January 1547 Henry VII's successor as King of England. The first King of Ireland and Head of the Church of England. Elizabeth 2 July 1492 14 September 1495 Died young. Mary 18 March 1496 25 June 1533 Queen of France as the wife of Louis XII. Grandmother of Lady Jane Grey, a claimant to the English throne. Edward 1498? 1499 Possibly confused with Edmund.[66] Edmund 21 February 1499 19 June 1500 Styled Duke of Somerset but never formally created a peer. Katherine 2 February 1503 10 February 1503 Henry's wife died as a result of Katherine's birth. An illegitimate son, by "a Breton lady", has also been attributed to Henry:

Name Birth Death Notes Sir Roland de Velville or Veleville 1474 25 June 1535 He was knighted in 1497 and was Constable of Beaumaris Castle. He is sometimes presented as the clear "illegitimate issue" of Henry VII of England by "a Breton lady whose name is not known". The possibility this was Henry's illegitimate son is baseless.[67] Ancestry [show]Ancestors of Henry VII of England

Common Royal Descent of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York uniting the houses of Lancaster and York. See also Cestui que Cultural depictions of Henry VII of England Notes Jump up ^ "Henry Tudor, a Proud Welshman". Nathen Amin. Jump up ^ Thomas Penn. Winter King – Henry VII and The Dawn of Tudor England. p. 371. Simon & Schuster, 2011. ISBN 978-1-4391-9156-9 Jump up ^ Guy, John (1988). "The Tudor Age (1485–1603)". The Oxford History of Britain: 272–273. Jump up ^ Caroline Rogers and Roger Turvey, Henry VII, London: Hodder Murray, 2005 Jump up ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 13. Jump up ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 17. Jump up ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 156. ^ Jump up to: a b Chrimes, S.B. Henry VII. p. 3. Jump up ^ Davies, Norman. The Isles – A History. pp. 337–379. ^ Jump up to: a b Mackie, J.D. The Earlier Tudors 1485–1558. p. 47. ^ Jump up to: a b Mackie, J.D. The Earlier Tudors 1485–1558. p. 54. Jump up ^ Chrimes, S.B. Henry VII. p. 4. Jump up ^ Ashley, Mike. The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. p. 331. Jump up ^ Garmon Jones, W. Welsh Nationalism and Henry Tudor. p. 30. Jump up ^ Chrimes, S.B. Henry VII. pp. 4–5. Jump up ^ Starkey, David. Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity. p. 4. Jump up ^ Marilee Mongello. "Tudor Monarchs – Henry VII, one". Englishhistory.net. Retrieved 7 February 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 19. Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1977) p. 65. ^ Jump up to: a b Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 25. Jump up ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 297. Jump up ^ Henry's return to Wales was regarded by some as the fulfilment of a Messianic prophecy. Rees, David (1985). The Son of Prophecy: Henry Tudor's Road to Bosworth. London: Black Raven Press. ISBN 0-85159-005-5. Jump up ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 361. Jump up ^ Estimates of the size of Henry's army at Bosworth vary. Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 31., gives a figure of 'perhaps' 6,000. Jump up ^ S.. Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 50. Jump up ^ "Westminster Abbey website: Coronations, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York". Retrieved 4 March 2013. Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 53. Jump up ^ Genealogical tables in Morgan, Kenneth O. The Oxford History of Britain. p. 709. Jump up ^ Weir, Alison. The Princes in the Tower, p. 190 Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 51. Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 69. Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 72. Jump up ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 62. Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, pp. 69–70. Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, p. 72. Jump up ^ Penn 2011, pp. 22–23. Jump up ^ Stephens. Memorials of the South Saxon See and Cathedral Church of Chichester. pp. 176-177 Jump up ^ S. B. Chimes, Henry VII (Yale University Press, 1977) p. 119. Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 121 ^ Jump up to: a b S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 203. Jump up ^ Kathy Elgin (2013). Henry VIII: The Charismatic King who Reforged a Nation. Arcturus Publishing. p. 55. ^ Jump up to: a b "pound avoirdupois". Sizes, Inc. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2016. 1497-1558 - Henry VII authorizes standard. & A unit of mass = 453.592 37 grams (now, technically, the international pound), now used chiefly in the United States, but since the 16th century the most commonly encountered unit of mass throughout the English-speaking world. The magnitude of the pound avoirdupois has varied less than 1% since the middle of the 14th century. Jump up ^ Mackie 1952, p. 97. Jump up ^ John M. Currin, "'The King's Army into the Partes of Bretaigne': Henry VII and the Breton Wars, 1489–1491," War in History, Nov 2000, Vol. 7 Issue 4, p379-412 Jump up ^ Warnicke 2000, p. 103. Jump up ^ Penn 2011, p. 201 Jump up ^ Penn 2011, p. 203-204. Jump up ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. pp. 167–168. Jump up ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. pp. 198–201. Jump up ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 178. Jump up ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996). "The Consolidation of England 1485–1603". The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and Stuart Britain: 39–42. Jump up ^ Penn 2011, p. 70. Jump up ^ Chrimes Henry VII pp.302–4 Jump up ^ Penn, Thomas (March 12, 2013). Winter King: Henry VII and the Dawn of Tudor England (Reprint ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 204. ISBN 978-1439191576. Jump up ^ Schwarz, Arthur L., VIVAT REX! An Exhibition Commemorating the 500th Anniversary of the Accession of Henry VIII (The Grolier Club, 2009), p. 58 "Henry's Father Searches for a New Wife". Jump up ^ Amy Licence. "his story, her story". authorherstorianparent.blogspot.com. Jump up ^ "A Short History of Early Modern England". google.com. Jump up ^ "Domestic and foreign policy of Henry VII". Jump up ^ "Henry VII Winter King". Queen to History. Jump up ^ Chrimes Henry VII p.304 Jump up ^ Penn, Thomas (March 12, 2013). Winter King: Henry VII and the Dawn of Tudor England (Reprint ed.). Simon and Schuster. pp. 110–113. ISBN 978-1439191576. Jump up ^ S.B. Chrimes, Henry VII, 313, 314 n5 Jump up ^ Chrimes, Henry VII p. 53 Jump up ^ Desmond Seward, The Wars of the Roses pg 318 Jump up ^ Steven Gunn, "Politic history, New Monarchy and state formation: Henry VII in European perspective," Historical Research, Aug 2009, Vol. 82 Issue 217, pp 380–392 Jump up ^ "Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey" by Arthur Penryn Stanley (page 281-282): "His infant daughter Elizabeth, aged three years and two months, was buried, with great pomp, in a small tomb at the feet of Henry III. His infant son, Edward, who died four years afterward (1499), was also buried in the Abbey. The first grave in the new Chapel was that of his wife, Elizabeth of York. She died in giving birth to a child who survived but a short time." Jump up ^ S. B. Chrimes, Henry VII, 67 n3. References Ashley, Mike (2002). British Kings & Queens. Carroll & Graf. pp. 280–286. ISBN 0-7867-1104-3. Chrimes, Stanley B. (1999) [1972]. Henry VII. New Haven: Yale University Press, second ed. ISBN 0-520-02266-1. online Cunningham, Sean (2007). Henry VII. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26620-3. Currin, John M. (November 2000). "'The King's Army into the Partes of Bretaigne': Henry VII and the Breton Wars, 1489–1491". War in History. 7 (4). Fritze, Ronald H., ed. 1991.Historical Dictionary of Tudor England, 1485-1603 (Greenwood, 1991) 594pp. Gunn, Steven (August 2009). "Politic history, New Monarchy and state formation: Henry VII in European perspective". Historical Research. 82 (217): 380–392. Gunn, Steven. (2007) "Henry VII in Context: Problems and Possibilities" History 92#307 pp 301-17 abstract Guy, John (1988). "The Tudor Age (1485–1603)". In Morgan, Kenneth O. The Oxford History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285202-7. Guy, John. (1988) Tudor England pp 53-79 Kendall, Paul Murray (1973). Richard the Third. Sphere Books. ISBN 0-351-17095-2. MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996). "The Consolidation of England 1485–1603". In Morrill, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and Stuart Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-289327-0. Mackie, John Duncan (1952). The Earlier Tudors, 1485-1558. Oxford University Press. Morgan, Kenneth O. (1988). The Oxford History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285202-7. Morrill, John (1996). The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and Stuart Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Penn, Thomas (2011). Winter King – Henry VII and The Dawn of Tudor England. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-9156-9 Rogers, Caroline; Turvey, Roger (2000). Henry VII. London: Hodder & Stoughton Educational. ISBN 0-340-75381-1. Starkey, David (2006). Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-724766-4. Stephens, W. R. W (1876). Memorials of the South Saxon See and Cathedral Church of Chichester. London: Bentley. Towle, Carolyn; Hunt, Jocelyn (1998). Henry VII. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-29691-9. Warnicke, Retha M. (2000). The Marrying of Anne of Cleves: Royal Protocol in Early Modern England. Cambridge University Press. Weir, Alison (2011). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage. ISBN 1-446-44911-4. Weir, Alison (2002). Henry VIII: King and Court. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6451-3. Weir, Alison (1995). The Princes in the Tower. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-39178-0. Wernham, R.B. (1966). Before the Armada: the growth of English foreign policy, 1485-1588. — a standard history of foreign policy Williams, Neville (1973). The Life and Times of Henry VII. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76517-5. External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry VII of England Wikisource has original works written by or about: Henry VII of England Illustrated history of Henry VII Wars of the Roses Information on Henry and Bosworth Tudor Place page on Henry VII Dictionary of National Biography excerpt Discussion of marital bed by Janina Ramirez and Jonathan Foyle: Art Detective Podcast, 15 Feb 2017 Henry VII of England House of Tudor Born: 28 January 1457 Died: 21 April 1509 Regnal titles Preceded by Richard III King of England Lord of Ireland 1485–1509 Succeeded by Henry VIII Peerage of England Preceded by Edmund Tudor Earl of Richmond 10th creation 1478–1485 Merged in Crown

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Henry VII, King of England's Timeline

January 28, 1457
Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales
England (United Kingdom)
September 19, 1486
St. Swithin's Priory, Winchester, England
November 28, 1489
Richmond Palace, London, Middlesex, England
June 28, 1491
Greenwich Palace, London, Middlesex, England