Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland

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Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland

Also Known As: "2nd Earl of Northumberland", "Baron Percy", "Baron Alnwick"
Birthplace: Leconfield, East Riding of Yorkshire, England (United Kingdom)
Death: March 29, 1461
Towton, North Yorkshire, England (United Kingdom) (Killed in the snowy Battle of Towton in the War of the Roses)
Place of Burial: York, Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:

Son of Sir Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland and Eleanor Neville, Countess of Northumberland
Husband of Eleanor (Eleanor) Percy, Baroness Poynings
Father of Ralph Percy; Sir Henry de Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland; Lady Margaret Gascoigne; Lady Eleanor West and Elizabeth Scrope
Brother of Joan Percy, Nun; Henry Percy; John Percy; John Percy; Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont and 6 others

Occupation: 3rd Earl Northumberland
Managed by: Anne Brannen
Last Updated:

About Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland



Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland

Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland, (25 July 1421 – 29 March 1461) was an English magnate.

The Earldom of Northumberland was one of the greatest fifteenth-century landholdings in northern England; Percy also became Lord Poynings on his marriage. This title would bring him into direct conflict with the Poynings family themselves, and indeed, feuds with neighbouring nobles, both lay and ecclesiastical, would be a key occupancy of his youth.

Percy married Eleanor Poynings, who outlived him; together they had four children. He was a leading Lancastrian during the Wars of the Roses, from which he managed to personally benefit, although his father died early in the war. He was not, however, to live to enjoy these gains, being killed at the Battle of Towton in 1461 on the defeated Lancastrian side.

Percy was the son of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Lady Eleanor Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and his second wife, Joan Beaufort.[a]

Percy was knighted in 1426 together with Henry VI.[5] He was appointed Warden of the Eastern March on the Scottish border on 1 April 1440, originally for four years, and subsequent extensions in 1444, and 1445, for the next seven years.[6] This came as well with the custody of Berwick Castle and responsibility for its defence[7] He was to hold this post until March 1461.[8] In May 1448, Percy, with his father and Sir Robert Ogle, invaded Scotland in a pre-emptive defence of the border, and burnt Dunbar and Dumfries, for which, in revenge, the Scots attacked his father's castles of Alnwick and Warkworth.[9] King Henry made his way north, and whilst at Durham sent Percy – now Lord Poynings – to raid Dumfrieshire; the sortie – "only to return with some 500 cattle" – of around 5,000 men failed, and he was captured whilst caught in a marsh following his father's defeat at the River Sark on 23 October.[10] Sir Robert Ogle was now outlawed and the king used half of his estates to compensate Poynings for the ransom he had expended arranging his release from captivity. Tensions with Scotland remained, to the extent that Poynings, his father, and other nobles were requested to stay and guard the border rather than attend Parliament, for which they were excused.[10] In summer 1451, with an Anglo-Scottish truce pending, Poynings was commissioned to treat with Scottish embassies.[5] In July 1455, he successfully prevented an assault on Berwick by the Scottish King, James II, and was congratulated by the English King as a result.[11]

In the late 1440s, the Yorkshire tenants of his father, the Earl of Northumberland, were in almost constant conflict with their neighbours, those of the Archbishop of York, involving armed skirmishes which Percy's brothers led.[12] These events were deemed so severe that in 1448 they led to the only progress north for the King during his reign.[9] The same year, because of a dispute over the inheritance his family received as a result of Henry Percy's marriage, the Earl of Northumberland's retainers had ejected the earl's relative, Robert Poynings, from his Sussex manors. A year later, Henry Percy – now Lord Poynings by right of his wife – took direct part, with his father, in raiding the manor of Newington Bertram in Kent, which was also enfeoffed by Robert. This attack also apparently involved cattle rustling and theft, and Robert later claimed it to be so brutal that he was "deterred from seeking a remedy at law for three years".[13]

By the early 1450s, relations with a powerful neighbouring family, the Nevilles became increasingly tense, and Poyning's brother Thomas, Lord Egremont, had finally ambushed a Neville force, returning from a wedding, near Sheriff Hutton.[14] with a force of between 1,000[15] and 5,000 men.[16] Although this was a bloodless confrontation, a precedent for the use of force in this particular dispute had already been laid in the previous violence in the region.[17] By October 1453, Poynings was directly involved, with his father, brothers Egremont and Richard, and joined by Lord Clifford, in forcing a battle with John and Richard Neville at Topcliffe.[18] The feud continued into the next year, when Poyning reportedly planned on attending parliament accompanied by a large force of men in February, and three months later both he and the earl were summoned by the king to attend council in attempt to impose a peace;[5] a second letter was "written but not despatched".[19] Neither, along with John Neville or Salisbury, did as requested.[20]

During the Wars of the Roses, Percy followed his father in siding with the Lancastrians against the Yorkists.[21] The Earl himself died at what is generally considered to be the first battle of the wars, at St Alban's on 22 May 1455, and Poynings was elevated as third Earl of Northumberland, without having to pay relief to the Crown, due the fact that his father had died in the King's service. He in his turn "swore to uphold the Lancastrian dynasty".[5] Although a reconciliation of the leading magnates of the realm was attempted in October 1458 in London, he arrived with such a large body of men (thought to be around 1,500)[22] that the city denied him entry. The new earl and his brother Egremont were bound over £4,000 each to keep the peace.[23] When conflict broke out again, he attended the so-called Parliament of Devils in October 1459, which condemned as traitors those Yorkists accused of, among other offences, causing the death of his father four years before.[5] On 30 December 1460, Percy led the central "battle" or section of the victorious Lancastrian army at the Battle of Wakefield,[24] following which, the army marched south, pillaging on the road to London.[25] He fought against Warwick at the second Battle of St. Alban's on 17 February 1461, and he commanded the Lancastrian van at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461,[26] however, "his archers were blinded by snowstorms", and he was either slain in close fighting, or died of his wounds soon after.[27] He was buried at St Denys's Church, York. He was posthumously attainted by the first parliament of the victorious Edward IV in November 1461, and his son and namesake was committed to the Tower.[5][28]

The estates of the Earls of Northumberland had traditionally been in constant use as a source of manpower and wages in defence of the border since the Percy family first gained the office the previous century.[29] The wages assigned to the third Earl were substantial: £2,500 yearly in time of peace, and £5,000 during war, as well as an annual payment for the maintenance of Berwick's upkeep (£66 in peacetime and £120 in wartime). Percy often had to provide from his own resources,however, as "securing payment was not easy" from the Exchequer,[5] (for example, in 1454 he received no payments at all).[30] In July 1452 he gained a twenty-year fee-farm (£80 yearly, from Carlisle), although he subsequently lost it in favour of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, in July 1454.[5] Throughout the 1450s, the Crown continually made efforts at paying Percy his Warden's wages and fees promptly (paying him full wartime rates for the whole of the year 1456-7, for example),[31] and since he was a loyal Lancastrian he achieved this more often than his counterpart on the west march, Salisbury, who by now had publicly aligned himself with York. The fee farm of Carlisle was returned to Percy in November 1459, following Salisbury's attainder in Coventry. He also benefited from the attainder of York, being granted an annuity of £66 from the latter's forfeited Wakefield Lordship in Yorkshire; he also received £200 from the profits of Penrith.[32]

As a reward for his role in the Lancastrian victory at Ludford Bridge, he was made Chief Forester north of the River Trent and the Constable of Scarborough Castle on 22 December 1459 for life. He was nominated to a wide-ranging commission of oyer and terminer (from the old French, literally a commission "to hear and determine")[33] on 30 May 1460, his new rank was a tactic to deal with the treasons and insurrections in Northumberland. On 3 July, he was granted Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Cambridgeshire, all belonging to Salisbury, on a twelve-year lease.[34] After the Yorkists captured Henry VI at the Battle of Northampton in 1460, they accused Percy of having looted York's northern estates during his exile in Ireland. This charge was likely to have had some truth in it, as it was his continued pillaging of those estates, with the Lords Clifford and Dacre, that led to York marching north to Wakefield in December 1460. These incomes, however collected, would have been vital to the Earl both personally and militarily as his northern estates especially had been a victim of feudal decline for most of the first half of the fifteenth century: even on the forfeit of the earldom to the Crown in 1461, his arrears have been calculated as still standing at approximately £12,000.[5]

At the arrangement of his father and Cardinal Beaufort in 1434,[5] he married on or before 25 June 1435, Eleanor Poynings (c.1422 – 11 February 1484), de jure suo jure Lady Poynings, daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Poynings of Poynings in Sussex, by his second wife, Eleanor Berkeley, daughter of Sir John Berkeley of Beverston Castle in Gloucestershire. She was heir general in 1446 to her grandfather, Robert Poynings, 4th Baron Poynings,[35] to the Lordship of Poynings, with lands across the south of England.[5] He was summoned to Parliament from 14 December 1446 to 26 May 1455, by writs directed Henrico de Percy, chivaler, domino de Ponynges. His wife was a legatee in the 1455 will of her mother, Eleanor, Countess of Arundel (widow of the thirteenth Earl of Arundel). They had one son and three daughters:[35]

  • Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland (c.1449 – 28 April 1489), who married Maud Herbert, daughter of the first Earl of Pembroke.[36]
  • Eleanor Percy (b. 1455), who married Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham.[37]
  • Margaret Percy (b. c. 1447), who married Sir William Gascoigne[38]
  • Elizabeth Percy (1460–1512), who married Henry Scrope, 6th Baron Scrope of Bolton.[35]
  • Anne Percy (1444–1522), who married Sir Thomas Hungerford in 1460.[39]

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Percy,_3rd_Earl_of_Northumberland


  • Sir Henry Percy, 3rd Earl Northumberland, 6th Lord Percy1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16
  • M, #12856, b. 25 July 1421, d. 29 March 1461
  • Father Sir Henry Percy, 5th Lord Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, Constable of England17,18,19 b. 3 Feb 1393, d. 22 May 1455
  • Mother Eleanor Neville17,18,19 b. 1398, d. c 1473
  • Sir Henry Percy, 3rd Earl Northumberland, 6th Lord Percy was born on 25 July 1421 at of Warkworth, Northumberland, England.2,4,12 He married Eleanor Poynings, daughter of Sir Richard Poynings and Alianore Berkeley, circa 25 June 1435; They had 1 son (Sir Henry, 8th Earl of Northumberland, 7th Lord Percy) and 3 daughters (Eleanor, wife of Sir Thomas, 5th Lord West, 8th Lord la Warre; Margaret, wife of Sir William Gascoigne; & Elizabeth, wife of Sir Henry, 6th Lord Scrope of Bolton).2,20,4,5,8,10,12,13,16 Sir Henry Percy, 3rd Earl Northumberland, 6th Lord Percy died on 29 March 1461 at Battle of Towton Field, Yorkshire, England, at age 39; Buried at St. Dionis, Yorkshire.2,4,12
  • Family Eleanor Poynings b. c 1426, d. 11 Feb 1484
  • Children
    • Sir Henry Percy, 8th Earl Northumberland, 7th Lord Percy & Poynings, Great Chamberlain of **England+2,4,12 b. c 1449, d. 28 Apr 1489
    • Eleanor Percy21,4,8,12,16 b. c 1451, d. b 1478
    • Margaret Percy+22,23,24,3,4,6,7,9,10,11,12,14,15 b. c 1453, d. a 1 Jul 1527
    • Elizabeth Percy+ b. c 1455, d. a 20 May 1512
  • Citations
  • [S3606] Unknown author, The Complete Peerage, by Cokayne, Vol. VI, p. 621; Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, by F. L. Weis, 4th Ed., p. 55; Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists, by David Faris, p. 149; Burke's Peerage, 1938, p. 1875.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 579.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 132.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 345.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 395.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 468.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 164-165.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 320.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 544.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 78-79.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 62.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 358.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 423.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 515.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 113.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 347.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 578-579.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 343-344.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 356.
  • [S15] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, p. 655-656.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 403.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 349.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 139.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 246.
  • From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p428.htm#i... _________________________
  • Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland
  • M, #10447, b. 25 July 1421, d. 29 March 1461
  • Last Edited=29 Jan 2013
  • Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland was born on 25 July 1421 at Leconfield, Yorkshire, England.1 He was the son of Henry de Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland and Lady Eleanor de Neville. He married Eleanor de Poynings, Baroness de Poynings, daughter of Sir Richard de Poynings and Joan Seamer, before 25 June 1435.2 He died on 29 March 1461 at age 39 at Towtown, Yorkshire, England, killed in action.
  • He gained the title of 2nd Earl of Northumberland in 1455. He fought in the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461.3
  • Children of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland and Eleanor de Poynings, Baroness de Poynings
    • 1.Anne Percy+4
    • 2.Lady Margaret Percy+3
    • 3.Lady Elizabeth Percy+5
    • 4.Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland+ b. c 1449, d. 28 Apr 1489
  • Citations
  • 1.[S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online <e-mail address>, Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
  • 2.[S37] BP2003 volume 2, page 1666. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
  • 3.[S1545] Mitchell Adams, "re: West Ancestors," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 6 December 2005 - 19 June 2009. Hereinafter cited as "re: West Ancestors."
  • 4.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 243. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  • 5.[S5991] Burke John and John Bernard Burke, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, with their descendants, sovereigns and subjects (London: E. Churton, 1851), volume II, pedigree LXXVII. Hereinafter cited as The Royal Families.
  • From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p1045.htm#i10447 _________________________
  • Henry PERCY (3º E. Northumberland)
  • Born: 25 Jul 1421, Leconfield, Yorkshire, England
  • Acceded: 1455
  • Died: 29 Mar 1461, battle of Towton
  • Buried: St. Denis, Yorkshire, England
  • Notes: The Complete Peerage,V.ix,p716.
  • Father: Henry PERCY (2º E. Northumberland)
  • Mother: Eleanor NEVILLE (C. Northumberland)
  • Married: Eleanor POYNINGS (B. Poynings) 25 Jun 1435
  • Children:
    • 1. Henry PERCY (4º E. Northumberland)
    • 2. Anne PERCY
    • 3. Margaret PERCY
    • 4. Ralph PERCY (b. ABT 1440)
    • 5. Elizabeth PERCY (B. Scrope of Bolton)
    • 6. Mary PERCY
    • 7. Eleanor PERCY
  • From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/PERCY.htm#Henry PERCY (3º E. Northumberland) _____________________
  • Sir Henry Percy
  • Birth: Jul. 25, 1421 Alnwick, Northumberland, England
  • Death: Mar. 29, 1461 Towton, North Yorkshire, England
  • Knight, 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 6th Lord Percy. King's Knight, Warden of the east March, Captain of Berwick, Constable of Scarborough Castle.
  • Son and heir to Sir Henry Percy, 5th Lord Percy and Eleanor de Neville. Grandson of Sir Henry Hotspur Percy and Elizabeth de Mortimer, Sir Ralph de Neville and Joan de Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt. First cousin of Edward IV of England, Margaret of York, George, Duke of Clarence and Richard III of England.
  • Husband of Lady Eleanor de Poynings, daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Poynings, descendant of King Edward I and his second wife, Countess of Arundel, Eleanor de Berkeley, daughter of Sir John of Beverstone, descendant of King John. They married before 25 June 1435 and had one son and three daughters:
    • Sir Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, Knight of the Garter
    • Eleanor, wife of Sir Thomas West, Lord West, Lord la Warre
    • Margaret, wife of Sir William Gascoigne of Gawthorpe, Yorkshire
    • Elizabeth, wife of Sir Henry Scrope, Lord Scrope of Bolton
  • As a result of this marriage, he was summoned to Parliament from Dec 1446 to May 1455 as Henrico de Percy, chivaler, domino de Ponynges. Henry was taken prisoner at the Battle of Sark in 1448 where his father was defeated, at the Battle of Wakefield 30 Dec 1460 and was slain fighting for King Henry VI at the Battle of Towden 29 March 1461, buried at St Dionis (St Denys) at Yorkshire. Eleanor died 11 Feb 1484.
  • Parents:
  • Henry de Percy (1391 - 1455)
  • Eleanor de Neville de Percy (1398 - 1472)
  • Spouse:
  • Eleanor Poynings Percy (1422 - 1484)*
  • Children:
    • Elizabeth Percy Scrope (____ - 1512)*
    • Margaret Percy Gascoigne (1447 - 1487)*
    • Henry de Percy (1449 - 1489)*
  • Siblings:
  • Henry Percy (1421 - 1461)
  • Thomas Percy (1422 - 1460)*
  • George Percy (1424 - 1474)*
  • Richard Percy (1426 - 1461)*
  • Ann Percy Raynsford Vaughan (1428 - 1522)*
  • Anne Percy Vaughan (1436 - 1522)*
  • Burial: St. Denys Parish Church, York, York Unitary Authority, North Yorkshire, England
  • Find A Grave Memorial# 104698815
  • From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=104698815 ________________________
  • Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 44
  • Percy, Henry (1394-1455) by William Hunt
  • PERCY, HENRY, second Earl of Northumberland (1394–1455), son and heir of Sir Henry Percy [q. v.], called Hotspur, was born on 3 Feb. 1394. His father fell at Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403, and Henry was presented to Henry IV by his grandfather, Henry de Percy, first earl of Northumberland [q. v.], at York in the following August. .... etc.
  • By his wife Eleanor, daughter of Ralph, first earl of Westmorland [q. v.], previously married, or contracted, to Richard le Despenser, son of Thomas, earl of Gloucester, who died in 1414 at the age of fourteen, he had twelve children: Henry (see below), who succeeded him; Thomas, lord Egremont; George, a prebendary of Beverley, born 1424; Sir Ralph [q. v.]; Sir Richard, slain at Towton on 29 March 1461; William, who was born in 1428, graduated D.D. from Cambridge, where he was chancellor 1451–5, was pro- vided to the see of Carlisle in 1452, called to the privy council (cf. Nicholas, Proceedings, vi. 185 et seq.), and died in 1462 (three other sons died in infancy). Northumberland's three daughters were: Joan, a nun, buried at Whitby Abbey; Catherine, born in 1423, married Edmund Grey, lord Grey of Ruthin [q. v.], created earl of Kent; and Anne, married (1) Sir Thomas Hungerford, (2) Sir Laurence Rainsford, (3) Sir Hugh Vaughan, and died in 1522 (Collins).
  • Percy, Henry, third Earl of Northumberland (1421–1461), son of Henry, second earl (see above), was born at Leconfield, Yorkshire, on 25 July 1421, and was knighted by Henry VI on 19 May 1426, being the day on which the little king was himself knighted (Fœdera, x. 356). In July 1439 he was appointed warden of the east marches and Berwick. By his marriage with Eleanor, granddaughter and heiress of Robert, lord Poynings, he in 1446 acquired the baronies of Poynings, Fitzpaine, and Bryan, with estates in Kent, Sussex, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Somerset, and was in December summoned to parliament as Baron de Poynings. In May 1448 he invaded Scotland in company with Sir Robert Ogle, afterwards first Baron Ogle [q. v.], and burnt Dunbar. The Scots retaliated by setting fire to his father's castles, at Alnwick in June and at Warkworth in July, and doing other damage. Accordingly, in October the king, having advanced into the north, sent him to invade Scotland. He was met by Hugh Douglas, earl of Ormond, forced to retreat, and defeated and taken prisoner near the river Sark (Auchinleck Chronicle, p. 18). He regained his freedom, and was recompensed by the king with the grant of half the goods of Sir Robert Ogle, then outlawed. In April 1451 he was a joint commissioner to treat with the ambassadors of James II of Scotland, and was one of the conservators of the truce made at Newcastle in August (Fœdera, xi. 299). On the death of his father on 23 May 1455 he succeeded him as Earl of Northumberland, the king allowing him relief of his lands without payment, the new earl having on 3 July foiled by his careful preparations an attack of Scots on Berwick, for which he received the king's thanks. This attack on Berwick was probably connected with the war between King James and James, ninth earl of Douglas [q. v.], in alliance with whom Percy seems to have acted against Scotland about this time. The feud between the Percys and the Nevilles still disturbed the north, and in January 1458 a great council was held at London to pacify that and other quarrels. To this council the earl came up at the head of a large armed force, and the Londoners, who admitted the Yorkists within their city, refused to admit him and the other Lancastrian lords, ‘because they came against the peace,’ so they lodged outside the walls. After much debate a general reconciliation, in which the earl was included, was effected on 25 March (Political Poems, ii. 254). Northumberland attended the parliament at Coventry in November 1459, when the Duke of York was accused of the death of the old earl, and the Yorkist leaders were attainted, and he took the oath to maintain the succession in the king's line. He was appointed chief justice of the forests north of Trent, and constable of Scarborough Castle (Doyle), and the king is said to have committed the government of the north to him and Lord Clifford as ‘his trusty and most faithful friends’ (Hall, p. 242). In November 1460 he held a meeting at York with Lords Clifford, Dacres, and others, and plundered the tenants of the Yorkist lords. York went north against them, and on 29 Dec. they defeated him at Wakefield, in which battle Northumberland was engaged (Will. Worc. Annals; Gregory, p. 210; Lancaster and York, ii. 236). After helping to raise an army for the queen, he marched southwards with her and the forces of the north, their army plundering and destroying as it marched, and on 17 Feb. 1461 defeated Warwick at St. Albans. The earl then marched to York with the king and queen, and was, in conjunction with Somerset and Clifford, in command of the royal army which marched to oppose the advance of the new king, Edward IV. At the battle of Towton on 29 March the earl commanded the van of the Lancastrian army. Seeing that his archers, who were blinded by a snowstorm, were unable to stand against the arrows of the Yorkists, he hastened to come to close quarters, and was slain. By his wife Eleanor, who survived him, he left among other sons Henry, afterwards fourth Earl of Northumberland [q. v.], and Sir Ralph Percy [q. v.], and three daughters: Eleanor, married Lord De la Warr; Margaret, married Sir William Gascoigne of Gawthorp, Yorkshire; and Elizabeth, married Henry, lord Scrope of Bolton. He was, it is believed, buried in the church of St. Dionys at York, the church of the parish in which stood Percy's Inn, the York town house of his family. In this church there was a painted window with effigies of the Percys; it was taken down in 1590 (figured in Drake, Eboracum, p. 306).
  • [Engl. Chron., ed. Davies, Gregory's Chron. (Collections of a Citizen, &c.) ed. Gairdner, Three Fifteenth-Cent. Chron. ed. Gairdner, Plumpton Corr., Introd. (all four Camden Soc.); Engl. Chron. ed. Giles; Hardyng's Chron., Fabyan's Chron., Hall's Chron. (all ed. Ellis); Holinshed's Chron. ed. Hooker, fo.; Stow's Annals, ed. Howes; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner; Rolls of Parl., Rymer's Fœdera, Proc. of Privy Council (all three Record publ.); Fordun's Scotichronicon, ed. Hearne; Chron. of Auchinleck, in ‘Ane Addicioun, &c.,’ ed. Thomson; Ramsay's Lanc. and York; Tytler's Hist. of Scotland; De Fonblanque's Annals of House of Percy; Collins's Engl. Peerage, ed. 1810; Doyle's Official Baronage; Dugdale's Baronage.]
  • From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Percy,_Henry_(1394-1455)_(DNB00)
  • https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati44stepuoft#page/405/mode... to https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati44stepuoft#page/408/mode... _______________________
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Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland's Timeline

July 25, 1421
Leconfield, East Riding of Yorkshire, England (United Kingdom)
Of, Yorkshire, England
Yorkshire, Leconfield, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
Alwodley Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
of, Leconfield, East Riding of Yorkshire, England
Leconfield, Yorkshire, England
March 29, 1461
Age 39
Towton, North Yorkshire, England (United Kingdom)
September 1, 1931
Age 39
September 1, 1931
Age 39